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 Dona Militaria 
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Bericht Dona Militaria
hallo allemaal

deze thread is onstaan door de volgende thread Bronze Torque

hier kwam Defixio op het idee om een thraed te maken over de romeinse Dona Militaria (Romeinse militaire onderscheidingen)... wat een goed idee is omdat veel mensen dit soort dingen wel kennen...maar niet weten..waarom en waneer men deze kreeg...er zijn leden hier op het forum die dit soort dingen ook al eens zelf gevonden hebben

de bedoelling van deze thread is om hem echt puur zakelijk te houden, zonder ouwhoeren ertussen...dus allen iets toevoegen wat ook wetenschapelijk iets toevoegdt......je eigen vondesten mag je natuurlijk plaatsen.

mvg leon


29 jul 2009, 00:31
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Legionary Decorations

The Roman Legion, like most organized armies throughout history had a very distinguished awards system. Decorations were usually worn by the soldiers on parades and were generally awarded at the end of a campaign or could be added to the eagle standards for entire units.
The following are some of the known awards in order from least to most important:


Torques A minor rank & file decorations for valor worn around the neck.
Armillae Another rank & file minor decoration for valor worn as an armband.
Phalerae A third type of rank & file decoration was an embossed disc, worn on the uniform.

Corona Aurea (Gold Crown) Awarded to both Centurions and apparently some principales, for killing an enemy in single combat and holding the ground to the end of the battle

Corona Vallaris (Fortification) Was made of gold and decorated with the uprights (valli) of an entrenchment. It was awarded to the first soldier or Centurion to force his way into an enemy's palisade.

Corona Muralis (Wall) Was made of gold and decorated with turrets. It was awarded to the first soldier or Centurion who got over the walls and into a besieged city.

Corona Civica Was made of oak leaves and acorns. It was awarded to a soldier who saved another's life in battle: "To have preserved the life of a Roman citizen in battle, slain his opponent, and maintained the ground on which the action took place." An extraordinary award, it brought many social privileges thereafter for the soldier's lifetime.

Corona Graminea (Grass) or Obsidionalis (Siege) The rarest of honors, was given to a Legate who broke the siege of a beleaguered Roman army. The wreath was made out of grasses gathered from the site where the siege had been lifted. It was presented to the general by the army he had rescued.

Other awards given strictly to officers and seemed more likely to be ceremonial as a recognition of a term of service rather than for some act of valor:

Hasta Pura Was a spear, possibly with a silver shaft, but without the iron tip for use in combat. Was awarded to the Primus Pilus possibly upon completion of service.

Vexillum This award was a little miniature standard mounted on a silver base.

Militärische Auszeichnungen der Römer

Das römische Militär kannte unterschiedliche Auszeichnungen (dona militaria) für besondere Tapferkeit. Die frühste überlieferte Auszeichnung war die Patera, die Opferschale, die Infanteristen erhielten, wenn sie einen Feind getötet und seine Rüstung genommen hatten. Da sich Opferschalen schlecht an der Kleidung tragen ließen, ging man in der späten Republik zu anderen Auszeichnungen über.

Coronae
Kronen als militärische Auszeichnungen gab es schon zur Zeit der Perserkriege. Bei den Römern war es üblich, Offizieren (selten einfachen Soldaten) für Heldentaten eine Corona (= Krone / Kranz) zu verleihen.

Corona obsidionalis graminea (Belagerungs- oder Graskrone)
Corona Civica (Bürgerkrone)
Corona Triumphalis (Lorbeerkranz der Imperatoren)
Corona muralis (Mauerkrone)
Corona vallaris (Wallkrone)
Corona exploratoria (Kundschafterkrone)
Corona Navalis oder Rostrata (Seekrone)
Corona Aurea, eine goldene Krone, die den höheren Rängen in der Kaiserzeit nach einem erfolgreichen Feldzug verliehen wurden. Die hohen Offiziere bekamen teilweise gleich mehrere davon.

Andere Auszeichnungen
Hasta pura
Ehrenwaffen
Die niederen Ränge erhielten

Phalerae, silberne oder versilberte Scheiben, die an einem Brustgurt getragen wurden,
Armillae (paarweise verliehene Armreifen),
Torques (ursprünglich keltische Halsringe, die in verkleinerter Form an Lederriemen an der Brust befestigt wurden).
Diese Auszeichnungen waren vermutlich den auf dem Schlachtfeld erbeuteten Schmuckstücken besiegter Völker, insbesondere der Kelten, nachempfunden.[1]

Ganze Einheiten wurden mit besonderen Standarten ausgezeichnet oder es wurden Phalerae oder Torques an den Signa befestigt.


29 jul 2009, 00:33
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hier nog wat

The Roman consul Titus Manlius in 361 BC challenged a Gaul to single combat and killed him, and then took his torc. Because he always wore it, he received the nickname Torquatus (the one who wears a torc). After this, Romans adopted the torc as a decoration for distinguished soldiers and elite units during Republican times.

Military Awards & Decorations: Phalera and Torques:

Below grave stone is now in the Bonn Museum. The text reads:
"To Marcus Caelius, son of Titus, of the Lemonian voting tribe, from Bologna, a centurion in the First Order of legio XVIII,
aged 53; He fell in the Varian War. His bones - if found - may be placed in this monument. Publius Caelius, son of Titus, of the Lemonian voting tribe, his brother, set this up."
This centurio had several military decorations like torques and phalerae proudly displayed on his breast armour:

Afbeelding


29 jul 2009, 00:34
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PUNISHMENTS AND REWARDS

Punishments: When the Roman soldier enrolled in legionary service, he swore a solemn military oath (sacramentum) originally to the Senate and Roman People, later to the general and the emperor, that he would fulfill his conditions of service even to the point of death; in effect, he gave up his citizen's right of appeal for any death sentence. Discipline in the army was quite rigorous, and the general had life-and-death power over his soldiers. The most lenient sentences, for minor offences, involved food rationing, hitting with the centurion's staff, or public flogging. More serious offences could lead to fines and deductions from pay, reductions in rank, loss of advantages from length of service, or even a dishonorable discharge (missio ignominiosa). For the most serious offences, such as desertion, a soldier could be summarily executed. The worst punishment of all was decimation, usually applied to a whole cohort, in which every tenth man in the unit was randomly selected to be clubbed or beaten to death by the other soldiers.

Rewards: Rewards were generally allocated on the basis of the rank of the recipient with the exception of one decoration, the “civic crown” of oak leaves (corona civica), which could be awarded to a soldier of any rank who saved the life of a citizen. Consequently, we find the civic crown proudly displayed by individuals from various classes, from this image above the doorway of a house in Pompeii all the way up the the emperor Augustus (though his civic crown was awarded on a symbolic rather than literal basis). Legionary soldiers and noncommissioned officers below the rank of centurion were entitled to receive monetary bonuses, part of the booty and spoils after a conquest, and various decorations, such as a gold necklet (torques) or armband (armilla), or gold, silver, or bronze sculpted disks (phalerae) that were worn on the breastplate during parades and other dress occasions. Upon his honorable discharge (missio honesta), a legionary soldier received permission to marry, a pension, and sometimes a grant of land. Auxiliaries frequently received a diploma, two small engraved bronze tablets bound together with bronze threads; these recorded the privileges granted to the soldier on his discharge, which often included citizenship and the right to contract a legal marriage (click here for a facsimile drawing of a diploma with inscription from 98 CE).

Besides the above decorations, centurions were entitled to various other crowns, including a plain gold crown (corona aurea) and the mural crown (corona muralis), given to the first man over the walls of a besieged city. Higher officers could be awarded a ceremonial silver spear (the hasta pura) or a small silver replica of a standard or flag (the vexillum). The highest military decoration was the siege crown (corona obsidionalis), made or grass or other vegetation and awarded to the officer responsible for delivering a besieged army.


Victorious generals received the most tangible awards as well as the highest honors. They frequently set up a trophy (tropaeum) in a prominent location, displaying enemy shields, weapons, and armor captured in battle. Generals could also claim the largest share of the booty and spoils from conquered cities and tribes, including captives who could be sold into slavery. These could include women and children, though the most prominent captives, such as chieftains or rulers, would be retained to march in the general's triumphal procession, with the possibility of subsequent execution. The greatest reward of all was the triumph (triumphus), an elaborate procession through the city of Rome to Jupiter's temple on the Capitoline hill. During the Republic a triumph could be awarded only to a victorious general (who was termed imperator or triumphator) upon permission of the Senate; during the Empire, triumphs were reserved for the emperor or members of the imperial family. The procession began with hornblowers and priests and sacrificial animals, usually pure white bulls raised especially for such occasions. Next came bearers carrying masses of booty and spoils and chained captives, the more prominent, the better. At the end of the procession marched the victorious soldiers in parade dress, followed by the lictors, senators, and the imperator himself. For this occasion he was dressed in gilded shoes and purple garments embroidered with gold (the tunica palmata and the toga picta). He rode in a special gilded chariot pulled by 4 horses; he carried a small ivory scepter topped with the image of an eagle and wore a crown of laurel leaves. Since all these trappings put the triumphator in a godlike position, behind him in the chariot stood a public slave who held a gold crown over his head and repeatedly reminded him that he was only a mortal. Triumphs were so significant that they were often represented on coins and other objects, such as this coin of Octavian, a cameo of an emperor (probably Hadrian) whose chariot is pulled by eagles and whose head is crowned by the goddess Roma, and even a honey-cake mold depicting the triumph of Marcus Aurelius, whose head is crowned by a winged victory.

The triumphal arch provided a more permanent record to commemorate a great victory; these were often topped with an image of the emperor or general driving the triumphal four-horse chariot (quadriga),


29 jul 2009, 00:35
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Je hebt de vereiste permissies niet om de toegevoegde bestanden aan dit bericht te zien.


29 jul 2009, 00:36
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Je hebt de vereiste permissies niet om de toegevoegde bestanden aan dit bericht te zien.


29 jul 2009, 00:37
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Je hebt de vereiste permissies niet om de toegevoegde bestanden aan dit bericht te zien.


29 jul 2009, 01:12
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http://www.romancoins.info/MilitaryEqui ... ignum.html

Phalerae

Signum legionum

Récompenses militaires, insignes et étendards


Je hebt de vereiste permissies niet om de toegevoegde bestanden aan dit bericht te zien.


29 jul 2009, 01:54
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en de rest is aan jullie...we zoeken nu goede afbeeldingen van dit soort onderscheidingen...

van grafsteen.... tot bodemvondst...en tot museum foto's of ander infro uit boeken

er staan ook zeer veel van dit soort onderscheidingen op munten afgebeeld

bedankt alvast voor jullie inzet

mvg leon


Je hebt de vereiste permissies niet om de toegevoegde bestanden aan dit bericht te zien.


29 jul 2009, 01:56
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is dit wat


:link:


29 jul 2009, 19:50
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je bedoeld dit stukje


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30 jul 2009, 02:33
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